This is the second part in a series how isotopes work and how they are scientifically fascinating. Part I here.
It turns out a horse is not just a horse, of course. The horse is a collection of atoms, and each of those atoms has a particular isotopic “flavor”, and the collection of isotope types in the horse tells a story. At the end of the day, scientists are simply interested in reading and telling stories about our world. The tail….er, tale of the horse is written by myriad interacting processes in the universe which influence the horse’s stable isotope ratios.
As I mentioned last time, carbon-12 is much, much more common than carbon-13 is on our planet, due to nuclear fusion of helium-4 in the sun. there are nearly 99 carbon-12’s on earth for every carbon-13. But that’s the base ratio if you took our whole planet, put it in a blender and mixed it all up. If you measured a particular object, such as a horse, it likely does not follow that measure exactly. It has become differentiated from the global average by numerous factors which have altered the isotope ratio.
In isotopic chemistry, fractionation is our name for any process which creates a preference for a certain isotope. If chemical reactions had no bias toward any particular isotope, that 99 to 1 ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 would be present in literally everything including you and me. But it turns out that the biochemical dice are loaded- to make the ratio even more biased!
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants take carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere and “fix” it to make sugars, which they then use for food. The core enzyme responsible for this carbon fixation is called Rubisco (short for Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase). This enormous molecule is likely the most abundant enzyme on earth. And it turns out that it has a favorite flavor when it comes to the carbon it fixes into sugar.
In fact, the entire plant is discriminating against carbon-13 in several of the processes of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide molecules diffuse more quickly into the plant’s leaves if they include the lighter carbon-12 rather than carbon-13. “Light” CO2 also dissolves more easily in the plant’s fluids. But the biggest fractionation happens when the Rubisco molecule gets hold of CO2 and breaks it. At each of these steps, the light carbon-12 is more likely to be used by the plant than its heavier siblings. There are various thermodynamic reasons for why this is the case, but the plant is essentially a sieve removing more of those heavy carbons at every step. At the end of the process, the plant is left isotopically “lighter” than the CO2 gas surrounding it that it breathes in.
Because you are what you eat, this means that you are suspiciously carbon-light, and there’s nothing you can do about it. Should have thought of that before you decided to be dependent on plants as the factory for your carbon-based molecules. Next time, we’ll talk about how we measure this, and the kinds of science that can happen once you have a nice consistent measurement to use to compare isotopic ratios between samples.